# competitive-programming-library

This documentation is automatically generated by online-judge-tools/verification-helper

View the Project on GitHub kmyk/competitive-programming-library

## Code

#define PROBLEM "http://judge.u-aizu.ac.jp/onlinejudge/description.jsp?id=2170&lang=jp"
#include <iostream>
#include "monoids/trivial.hpp"
#include "utils/macros.hpp"
using namespace std;

int main() {
while (true) {
int n, q; cin >> n >> q;
if (n == 0 and q == 0) break;

REP3 (i, 1, n) {
int parent; cin >> parent;
-- parent;
}

long long sum = 0;
vector<bool> marked(n);
marked[0] = true;
while (q --) {
char c; int v; cin >> c >> v;
-- v;
if (c == 'M') {
if (not marked[v]) {
marked[v] = true;
lct.cut(v);
}
} else if (c == 'Q') {
sum += lct.get_root(v) + 1;
}
}
cout << sum << endl;
}
return 0;
}

#define PROBLEM "http://judge.u-aizu.ac.jp/onlinejudge/description.jsp?id=2170&lang=jp"
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <cassert>
#include <functional>
#include <sstream>
#include <vector>
#line 2 "utils/macros.hpp"
#define REP(i, n) for (int i = 0; (i) < (int)(n); ++ (i))
#define REP3(i, m, n) for (int i = (m); (i) < (int)(n); ++ (i))
#define REP_R(i, n) for (int i = (int)(n) - 1; (i) >= 0; -- (i))
#define REP3R(i, m, n) for (int i = (int)(n) - 1; (i) >= (int)(m); -- (i))
#define ALL(x) std::begin(x), std::end(x)
#line 2 "monoids/reversible.hpp"
#include <utility>

template <class Monoid>
struct reversible_monoid {
typedef typename Monoid::value_type base_type;
typedef std::pair<base_type, base_type> value_type;
Monoid base;
reversible_monoid() = default;
reversible_monoid(const Monoid & base_) : base(base_) {}
value_type unit() const { return std::make_pair(base.unit(), base.unit()); }
value_type mult(const value_type & a, const value_type & b) const { return std::make_pair(base.mult(a.first, b.first), base.mult(b.second, a.second)); }
static value_type make(const base_type & x) { return std::make_pair(x, x); }
static value_type reverse(const value_type & a) { return std::make_pair(a.second, a.first); }
static base_type get(const value_type & a) { return a.first; }
};

/**
* @brief Link-Cut tree (monoids without commutativity, vertex set + path get)
* @description manages a dynamic forest of rooted trees
* @note in each splay tree, nodes are sorted from bottom to top. the rightmost node of the root splay tree of the auxiliary tree is the root of represented tree.
*/
template <class Monoid>
typedef typename Monoid::value_type value_type;
typedef typename reversible_monoid<Monoid>::value_type reversible_type;
const reversible_monoid<Monoid> mon;
std::vector<value_type> data;  // data of the original tree
std::vector<reversible_type> path;  // sum of data of the sub-tree in the belonging splay tree
std::vector<int> parent, left, right;  // of the auxiliary tree
std::vector<bool> is_reversed;  // of the auxiliary tree; not applied to left, right, and path yet

/**
* @description returns whether a and parent[a] is in the same splay tree
*/
int get_parent_edge_type(int a) const {
if (parent[a] != -1 and left[parent[a]] == a) {
assert (not is_reversed[parent[a]]);
return -1;  // heavy (left-child)
} else if (parent[a] != -1 and right[parent[a]] == a) {
assert (not is_reversed[parent[a]]);
return +1;  // heavy (right-child)
} else {
return 0;  // light
}
}

/**
* @description make a the parent of the current parent of a
*/
void rotate(int a) {
int b = parent[a];
assert (b != -1);
assert (not is_reversed[b]);
assert (not is_reversed[a]);
switch (get_parent_edge_type(b)) {
case -1:  // left
left[parent[b]] = a;
break;
case 1:  // right
right[parent[b]] = a;
break;
}
switch (get_parent_edge_type(a)) {
case -1:  // left
parent[a] = std::exchange(parent[b], a);
left[b] = std::exchange(right[a], b);
if (left[b] != -1) parent[left[b]] = b;
break;
case 1:  // right
parent[a] = std::exchange(parent[b], a);
right[b] = std::exchange(left[a], b);
if (right[b] != -1) parent[right[b]] = b;
break;
default:  // root
assert (false);
}
update_path(b);
update_path(a);
}

/**
* @description make a the root of the beloging splay tree
*/
void splay(int a) {
propagate_reverse_splay(a);
while (get_parent_edge_type(a)) {
// a is not the root of the splay tree
if (not get_parent_edge_type(parent[a])) {
// zig step: parent[a] is the root of the splay tree
rotate(a);
} else if (get_parent_edge_type(a) == get_parent_edge_type(parent[a])) {
// zig-zig step
rotate(parent[a]);
rotate(a);
} else {
// zig-zag step
rotate(a);
rotate(a);
}
}
}

/**
* @description make a the root of the auxiliary tree
* @note a becomes a terminal of the heavy path
*/
void expose(int a) {
// make a light path from a to the root
for (int b = a; b != -1; b = parent[b]) {
splay(b);
}
// make a the terminal of the path
assert (not is_reversed[a]);
left[a] = -1;
update_path(a);
// make the path heavy
for (int b = a; parent[b] != -1; b = parent[b]) {
left[parent[b]] = b;
update_path(parent[b]);
}
splay(a);
}

void propagate_reverse_node(int a) {
if (is_reversed[a]) {
is_reversed[a] = false;
path[a] = reversible_monoid<Monoid>::reverse(path[a]);
if (right[a] != -1) is_reversed[right[a]] = not is_reversed[right[a]];
if (left[a] != -1) is_reversed[left[a]] = not is_reversed[left[a]];
std::swap(left[a], right[a]);
}
}
void propagate_reverse_splay(int a) {
if (parent[a] != -1 and (left[parent[a]] == a or right[parent[a]] == a)) {
propagate_reverse_splay(parent[a]);
}
propagate_reverse_node(a);
if (right[a] != -1) propagate_reverse_node(right[a]);
if (left[a] != -1) propagate_reverse_node(left[a]);
}

/**
* @note a should be the root of the splay tree
*/
void update_path(int a) {
path[a] = reversible_monoid<Monoid>::make(data[a]);
if (right[a] != -1) path[a] = mon.mult(path[a], path[right[a]]);
if (left[a] != -1) path[a] = mon.mult(path[left[a]], path[a]);
}

public:
link_cut_tree(int size, const Monoid & mon_ = Monoid())
: mon(mon_), data(size, mon.base.unit()), path(size, mon.unit()), parent(size, -1), left(size, -1), right(size, -1), is_reversed(size, false) {
}

/**
* @description make a direct edge from a to b
* @note a must be a root
* @note b must not be a descendant of a
*/
void link(int a, int b) {
expose(b);  // for the time complexity
expose(a);  // to make a the root
assert (not is_reversed[a]);
assert (right[a] == -1);  // a must be a root
parent[a] = b;
}

/**
* @description remove the direct edge from a
* @note a must not be a root
*/
void cut(int a) {
expose(a);  // to make a the root
assert (not is_reversed[a]);
assert (right[a] != -1);  // a must not be a root
parent[right[a]] = -1;
right[a] = -1;
update_path(a);
}

/**
* @note -1 is returned when a and b are not in the same tree
*/
int get_lowest_common_ancestor(int a, int b) {
expose(b);  // for the time complexity
expose(a);  // to make a the root
assert (not is_reversed[a]);
int preserved = -1;
std::swap(left[a], preserved);  // make a and b belong different splay trees even if b is a descendant of a
int result = b;
int c = b;
for (; c != a and c != -1; c = parent[c]) {
assert (parent[c] != -1);
if (not get_parent_edge_type(c)) {  // when it enters another splay tree
result = parent[c];
}
}
std::swap(left[a], preserved);
return c == a ? result : -1;
}

bool are_connected(int a, int b) {
return get_lowest_common_ancestor(a, b) != -1;
}

int get_parent(int a) {
expose(a);
assert (not is_reversed[a]);
if (right[a] == -1) return parent[a];
for (int b = right[a]; ; b = left[b]) {
propagate_reverse_node(b);
if (left[b] == -1) {
splay(b);  // for the time complexity
return b;
}
}
}

int get_root(int a) {
expose(a);
assert (not is_reversed[a]);
while (right[a] != -1) {
a = right[a];
}
splay(a);  // for the time complexity
return a;
}

/**
* @description make a the root of the represented tree
*/
void evert(int a) {
expose(a);  // to make a the root
assert (not is_reversed[a]);
assert (left[a] == -1);  // a is the terminal
is_reversed[a] = true;
}

void vertex_set(int a, value_type value) {
splay(a);  // to make a the root of a splay tree
data[a] = value;
update_path(a);
}

value_type vertex_get(int a) const {
return data[a];
}

value_type path_get(int a, int b) {
expose(a);  // for the time complexity
expose(b);  // to make b the root
assert (not is_reversed[a]);
auto data_a = reversible_monoid<Monoid>::make(data[a]);
reversible_type up = (right[a] == -1 ? data_a : mon.mult(data_a, path[right[a]]));
reversible_type down = (left[a] == -1 ? data_a : mon.mult(path[left[a]], data_a));
for (int c = a; c != b and c != -1; c = parent[c]) {
assert (parent[c] != -1);
assert (not is_reversed[parent[c]]);
auto data_parent_c = reversible_monoid<Monoid>::make(data[parent[c]]);
switch (get_parent_edge_type(c)) {
case -1:  // heavy (left-child)
up = mon.mult(up, data_parent_c);
if (right[parent[c]] != -1) up = mon.mult(up, path[right[parent[c]]]);
break;
case 1:  // heavy (right-child)
down = mon.mult(data_parent_c, down);
if (left[parent[c]] != -1) down = mon.mult(path[left[parent[c]]], down);
break;
case 0:  // light
down = reversible_monoid<Monoid>::reverse(up);
up = mon.mult(up, data_parent_c);
if (right[parent[c]] != -1) up = mon.mult(up, path[right[parent[c]]]);
down = mon.mult(data_parent_c, down);
if (left[parent[c]] != -1) down = mon.mult(path[left[parent[c]]], down);
break;
}
}
return reversible_monoid<Monoid>::get(reversible_monoid<Monoid>::reverse(down));
}

std::string to_graphviz() const {
using namespace std;
ostringstream oss;
oss << "digraph G {" << endl;
oss << "    graph [ rankdir = BT, bgcolor = \"#00000000\" ]" << endl;
oss << "    node [ shape = circle, style = filled, fillcolor = \"#ffffffff\" ]" << endl;
REP (a, parent.size()) {
// oss << "    " << a << ";" << endl;
oss << "    " << a << "[ label = \"" << a << "(" << data[a] << "," << path[a] << (is_reversed[a] ? " +rev" : "") << ")\"];" << endl;
}
function <void (int)> go = [&](int a) {
if (parent[a] != -1 and not get_parent_edge_type(a)) {
oss << "    " << a << " -> " << parent[a] << " [ style = dashed ]" << endl;
}
if (left[a] != -1 or right[a] != -1) {
string l = (left[a] != -1 ? to_string(left[a]) : "l" + to_string(a));
string r = (right[a] != -1 ? to_string(right[a]) : "r" + to_string(a));
oss << "    " << l << " -> " << a << endl;
oss << "    " << l << " -> " << r << " [ style = invis ]" << endl;
oss << "    " << r << " -> " << a << endl;
oss << "    { rank = same; " << l << "; " << r << "; }" << endl;
if (left[a] == -1) oss << "    " << l << " [ style = invis ]" << endl;
if (right[a] == -1) oss << "    " << r << " [ style = invis ]" << endl;
}
if (left[a] != -1) go(left[a]);
if (right[a] != -1) go(right[a]);
};
REP (a, parent.size()) if (not get_parent_edge_type(a)) {
go(a);
}
oss << "}";
return oss.str();
}
};
#line 2 "monoids/trivial.hpp"

struct trivial_monoid {
typedef struct {} value_type;
value_type unit() const { return (value_type) {}; }
value_type mult(value_type a, value_type b) const { return (value_type) {}; }
};
using namespace std;

int main() {
while (true) {
int n, q; cin >> n >> q;
if (n == 0 and q == 0) break;

REP3 (i, 1, n) {
int parent; cin >> parent;
-- parent;
}

long long sum = 0;
vector<bool> marked(n);
marked[0] = true;
while (q --) {
char c; int v; cin >> c >> v;
-- v;
if (c == 'M') {
if (not marked[v]) {
marked[v] = true;
lct.cut(v);
}
} else if (c == 'Q') {
sum += lct.get_root(v) + 1;
}
}
cout << sum << endl;
}
return 0;
}