competitive-programming-library

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:heavy_check_mark: modulus/choose.yukicoder-1035.test.cpp

Depends on

Code

#define PROBLEM "https://yukicoder.me/problems/no/1035"
#include <iostream>
#include "utils/macros.hpp"
#include "modulus/mint.hpp"
#include "modulus/choose.hpp"
using namespace std;

constexpr int64_t MOD = 1000000007;
mint<MOD> solve(int n, int m) {
    mint<MOD> ans = 0;
    REP (i, m + 1) {
        int sign = (i % 2 == 0 ? 1 : -1);
        ans += sign * choose<MOD>(m, m - i) * mint<MOD>(m - i).pow(n);
    }
    return ans;
}

int main() {
    int N, M; cin >> N >> M;
    cout << solve(N, M) << endl;
    return 0;
}
#line 1 "modulus/choose.yukicoder-1035.test.cpp"
#define PROBLEM "https://yukicoder.me/problems/no/1035"
#include <iostream>
#line 2 "utils/macros.hpp"
#define REP(i, n) for (int i = 0; (i) < (int)(n); ++ (i))
#define REP3(i, m, n) for (int i = (m); (i) < (int)(n); ++ (i))
#define REP_R(i, n) for (int i = (int)(n) - 1; (i) >= 0; -- (i))
#define REP3R(i, m, n) for (int i = (int)(n) - 1; (i) >= (int)(m); -- (i))
#define ALL(x) std::begin(x), std::end(x)
#line 2 "modulus/mint.hpp"
#include <cstdint>
#line 2 "modulus/modpow.hpp"
#include <cassert>
#line 4 "modulus/modpow.hpp"

inline int32_t modpow(uint_fast64_t x, uint64_t k, int32_t MOD) {
    assert (/* 0 <= x and */ x < (uint_fast64_t)MOD);
    uint_fast64_t y = 1;
    for (; k; k >>= 1) {
        if (k & 1) (y *= x) %= MOD;
        (x *= x) %= MOD;
    }
    assert (/* 0 <= y and */ y < (uint_fast64_t)MOD);
    return y;
}
#line 2 "modulus/modinv.hpp"
#include <algorithm>
#line 5 "modulus/modinv.hpp"

inline int32_t modinv_nocheck(int32_t value, int32_t MOD) {
    assert (0 <= value and value < MOD);
    if (value == 0) return -1;
    int64_t a = value, b = MOD;
    int64_t x = 0, y = 1;
    for (int64_t u = 1, v = 0; a; ) {
        int64_t q = b / a;
        x -= q * u; std::swap(x, u);
        y -= q * v; std::swap(y, v);
        b -= q * a; std::swap(b, a);
    }
    if (not (value * x + MOD * y == b and b == 1)) return -1;
    if (x < 0) x += MOD;
    assert (0 <= x and x < MOD);
    return x;
}

inline int32_t modinv(int32_t x, int32_t MOD) {
    int32_t y = modinv_nocheck(x, MOD);
    assert (y != -1);
    return y;
}
#line 6 "modulus/mint.hpp"

/**
 * @brief quotient ring / 剰余環 $\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z}$
 */
template <int32_t MOD>
struct mint {
    int32_t value;
    mint() : value() {}
    mint(int64_t value_) : value(value_ < 0 ? value_ % MOD + MOD : value_ >= MOD ? value_ % MOD : value_) {}
    mint(int32_t value_, std::nullptr_t) : value(value_) {}
    explicit operator bool() const { return value; }
    inline mint<MOD> operator + (mint<MOD> other) const { return mint<MOD>(*this) += other; }
    inline mint<MOD> operator - (mint<MOD> other) const { return mint<MOD>(*this) -= other; }
    inline mint<MOD> operator * (mint<MOD> other) const { return mint<MOD>(*this) *= other; }
    inline mint<MOD> & operator += (mint<MOD> other) { this->value += other.value; if (this->value >= MOD) this->value -= MOD; return *this; }
    inline mint<MOD> & operator -= (mint<MOD> other) { this->value -= other.value; if (this->value <    0) this->value += MOD; return *this; }
    inline mint<MOD> & operator *= (mint<MOD> other) { this->value = (uint_fast64_t)this->value * other.value % MOD; return *this; }
    inline mint<MOD> operator - () const { return mint<MOD>(this->value ? MOD - this->value : 0, nullptr); }
    inline bool operator == (mint<MOD> other) const { return value == other.value; }
    inline bool operator != (mint<MOD> other) const { return value != other.value; }
    inline mint<MOD> pow(uint64_t k) const { return mint<MOD>(modpow(value, k, MOD), nullptr); }
    inline mint<MOD> inv() const { return mint<MOD>(modinv(value, MOD), nullptr); }
    inline mint<MOD> operator / (mint<MOD> other) const { return *this * other.inv(); }
    inline mint<MOD> & operator /= (mint<MOD> other) { return *this *= other.inv(); }
};
template <int32_t MOD> mint<MOD> operator + (int64_t value, mint<MOD> n) { return mint<MOD>(value) + n; }
template <int32_t MOD> mint<MOD> operator - (int64_t value, mint<MOD> n) { return mint<MOD>(value) - n; }
template <int32_t MOD> mint<MOD> operator * (int64_t value, mint<MOD> n) { return mint<MOD>(value) * n; }
template <int32_t MOD> mint<MOD> operator / (int64_t value, mint<MOD> n) { return mint<MOD>(value) / n; }
template <int32_t MOD> std::istream & operator >> (std::istream & in, mint<MOD> & n) { int64_t value; in >> value; n = value; return in; }
template <int32_t MOD> std::ostream & operator << (std::ostream & out, mint<MOD> n) { return out << n.value; }
#line 2 "modulus/factorial.hpp"
#include <vector>
#line 4 "modulus/factorial.hpp"

template <int32_t MOD>
mint<MOD> fact(int n) {
    static std::vector<mint<MOD> > memo(1, 1);
    while (n >= memo.size()) {
        memo.push_back(memo.back() * mint<MOD>(memo.size()));
    }
    return memo[n];
}
template <int32_t MOD>
mint<MOD> inv_fact(int n) {
    static std::vector<mint<MOD> > memo;
    if (memo.size() <= n) {
        int l = memo.size();
        int r = n * 1.3 + 100;
        memo.resize(r);
        memo[r - 1] = fact<MOD>(r - 1).inv();
        for (int i = r - 2; i >= l; -- i) {
            memo[i] = memo[i + 1] * (i + 1);
        }
    }
    return memo[n];
}
#line 5 "modulus/choose.hpp"

/**
 * @brief combination / 組合せ ${} _ n C _ r$ (前処理 $O(n)$ + $O(1)$)
 */
template <int32_t MOD>
mint<MOD> choose(int n, int r) {
    assert (0 <= r and r <= n);
    return fact<MOD>(n) * inv_fact<MOD>(n - r) * inv_fact<MOD>(r);
}
#line 6 "modulus/choose.yukicoder-1035.test.cpp"
using namespace std;

constexpr int64_t MOD = 1000000007;
mint<MOD> solve(int n, int m) {
    mint<MOD> ans = 0;
    REP (i, m + 1) {
        int sign = (i % 2 == 0 ? 1 : -1);
        ans += sign * choose<MOD>(m, m - i) * mint<MOD>(m - i).pow(n);
    }
    return ans;
}

int main() {
    int N, M; cin >> N >> M;
    cout << solve(N, M) << endl;
    return 0;
}
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